‘Brand is far more than the name, logo, symbol, or trademark which highlights the origin of products or service. It is imbued with a set of unique values that defines its character and work as an unwritten contract, promising to deliver satisfaction by providing consistent quality each time it is bought, used, or experienced. Brand can be relevant to businesses as to services, and they can even be applied to ideas and concepts as well as individual identities or products. ’ (Slade-Brooking, 2016).
Brand is also ‘another way of representing strategy and the set of elements used to distinguish the relationship between the business and its customers based on the exchange of value (products, services, or solutions for money). Once the process starts, the brand begins to accrue meaning, either intentionally or unintentionally. It may have very little impact or leverage, but all the experiences that occur during the exchange of value are being associated with the business and therefore whatever brand the business has established.’
According to the studies of Patrick Newbery and Kevin Farnham, the primary building blocks of brand experience design are (1) time, (2) brand intent, (3) products/services/solutions, and (4) engagement experience where brands strive to deliver clear value positions through their outputs in a consistent manner by providing useful information, opportunities, and interdependencies.
In other words, brands fail when there is a major gap between people’s expectation and companies’ delivery because actual consumers’ perceived value of brands may not always be equivalent to companies’ intended values. Newbery and Farnham proposed the following brand experience design model to show brand’s major business activities from the customer and business point of view which control influences of brand:
Previous researchers such as Vargo and Lusch (2011) affirmed in their studies that customer engagements play a greater role to define success of business activities due to the prevalent management perspective shift of brands (from company-centric to customer-centric). However, Newbery and Farnham disagree with the belief that ‘brand is no longer owned by their brand but it is now owned by customers’ because even though people react and define brand meanings and beliefs for themselves from individual experiences, brand’s value generation is still influenced by the intent and actions of business as shown in the diagram below:
Brand produces experience and that experience becomes the brand. The ultimate role of brand is to deliver clear business intent and action to customers while translating correct meaning and belief back to business. Thus, in order for brands to stay competent and relevant, it is essential for business to well manage engagement experience to generate brand satisfaction and loyalty, which will play a crucial role to influence consumer behaviours.